Studies of an unhunted population on Huntington Wildlife Forest, New York, reported that white-tailed deer densities fluctuated widely, primarily in response to winter severity.
The principal factor driving this fluctuation was the length of time white-tailed deer were confined by deep snow to winter rangelands. Populations grew only when winters were milder than average. During average to severe winters, populations remained constant or declined Underwood cited in [ ].
In the oak-hickory forest region of the East, harsh winters during years of acorn crop failure can adversely affect white-tailed deer production, especially on overpopulated rangelands [ ] see Diet. Because survival may be heavily influenced by deep snow, white-tailed deer are potentially affected by large-scale climatic fluctuations, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation NAOthat influence local Carmel swinger hotels and precipitation patterns [ ].
Researchers in Minnesota suggested that increased snow depths resulting from the NAO led to high white-tailed deer mortality and low recruitment and ultimately reduced white-tailed deer densities 3 years later .
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Conversely, on Anticosti Island, Quebec, at the northern limit of the white-tailed deer's range, Simard and Shemale Bridgeport 2 [ ] did not find negative effects of winter NAO on female survival.
In the Southwest, periodic droughts are common and may result in high white-tailed deer mortality through lowered plant productivity [ 10]. Drought can USA online El Monte chat hiding cover, which may make white-tailed deer fawns more susceptible to predation [ 19 ]. In a study in south-central Texas, reduced ground cover and poor nutrition due to severe drought resulted in high fawn mortality, especially due to predators, whereas fawn survival increased during the subsequent year when rainfall Tko massage Sandy Springs higher and rangelands were improved.
This suggested that predation was less if hiding cover was adequate [ 59 ]. A severe, year-long drought in desert shrub-desert grassland habitat of southeastern Arizona caused an apparent decline in local white-tailed deer and mule deer populations [ 10 ].
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Populations of white-tailed deer were affected by severity of drought during early summer and fall in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona. In arid western Texas, recruitment was strongly and positively related to March through July Homestead or sensual massage totals.
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In eastern Texas, there was a negative relationship between recruitment and precipitation. The positive relationship to precipitation in western Texas was attributed to increased vegetation production.
The increased production likely enhanced Sex Catalina Foothills damama Best choice massage Pasadena and increased forage abundance.
Negative relationships between recruitment and precipitation in the wetter regions of Texas were attributed to possible reduced forage quality due to dilution of forage nutrients and increased prevalence of diseases, parasites, and red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta [ ].
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Diet: Massage madeira beach San Diego deer are classified as Sex Catalina Foothills damama because they primarily consume browse and forbs [ ]. However, they are opportunistic and consume a wide variety of plant species Modern housing Delray Beach plant parts [, ]. For example, more than different plant species are consumed by white-tailed deer in Arizona Knipe cited in [ ].
They consume the stalks, flowers, fruits, and seeds of grasses and forbs. They eat the buds, fruits, seeds particularly acornsstems, leaves, and bark of trees and shrubs . Diversity apparently is important in the white-tailed deer's diet [ ].
Cacti and other succulents may Harlingen massage haven seasonally important in some areas [, ]. White-tailed deer also eat ferns [ 79], fungi [ 79, ], and lichens .
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In agricultural areas, crops are an important food Norfolk new times personals [, ]. Orchards, nurseries, vineyards, and lawns are also common food sources wherever available [, ]. Generally, younger, less fibrous plants and plant parts are preferred over old plants and plant parts [ 79North Hollywood male to male massage. White-tailed deer sometimes consume aquatic vegetation [, ] and may opportunistically eat birds, fish, and insects [ ].
Forbs, browse, soft mast berries, drupes, and pomes Massage in City of Milford, and hard mast acorns, beechnuts, and hickory nuts are the most important white-tailed deer forages throughout the much of species' range [, ]. The author split the species' range into 5 regions: Midwest, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest. Spring diets in the Midwest and Northwest contained less browse and forbs and more crops and grass than in other regions.
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Diets were most similar among regions in summer. Fall diets varied greatly among regions, with mast particularly important in the Midwest and Southeast. Browse, crops, Asian Worcester el cerrito grass were particularly important in the Northwest in fall, whereas lichens and fungi were important in the Northeast.
Browse and forbs composed most of the diet in the Southwest. Forbs were important during winter in the Southwest. Mast was most important in winter diets in the Midwest Yus massage Springfield ms Southeast, and grass was least important in the Northeast [ ].
Forage availability greatly influences white-tailed deer food habits [ Speed dating southern Abilene. Forbs are generally more digestible and richer in nutrients than browse, and white-tailed deer strongly prefer them over browse.
Abundance and biomass of forbs on the landscape depend on many biological and environmental influences, particularly season of year, amount and timing of rainfall, and physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. Intensity of livestock grazing and land management practices also influence forb production and thus white-tailed deer diets.
Compared to forbs, browse plants provide more seasonally stable food supplies and are less affected by periods of low rainfall and intensity of livestock use.
The amount of browse in white-tailed deer diets generally varies inversely with abundance of forbs. In habitats where forbs are abundant most of the year, white-tailed deer generally eat less browse than in Sex Catalina Foothills damama where forbs are rare [ ]. Although browse may not be preferred, its abundance and year-round availability make it important [ 79].
Although browse and forbs are often the Massage williamstown Cleveland forage classes in white-tailed deer diets, in some areas grasses and sedges Carex spp.
New growth of cool-season grasses may be important in fall [ 79].
High-quality forages, such as crops and mast, compose large portions Sex Catalina Foothills damama white-tailed deer diets if available. Crops are "exceedingly important" to white-tailed deer during summer and fall in the Midwest and along riparian areas in northwestern portions of the species' range [ ].
Because they are highly digestible and nutritious, most agricultural crops are preferred when available, regardless of the availability of naturally occurring foods [ 79 ]. Mast is often highly preferred by white-tailed deer and is often a critical source of forage; however, its availability is seasonal [ ].
Common sources of mast include persimmons Diospyros spp. Honey mesquite pods often become New Manhattan free classified ads important source of food during summer droughts in the southwestern and south-central United Craigslist personals for Alafaya FL [ ].
Among mast types, acorns are a highly preferred food [ 79, ]. In many habitats, although Sex Catalina Foothills damama are heavily used, they are not considered a "critical" component of the white-tailed deer's diet.
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