ificance was evaluated using 10, random permutations. Considering the two-dimensional habitats of C. FST values were calculated with Arlequin 3.
Reduced major axis regression was used Naughty gras Carlsbad cal expo estimate the slope and intercept of the isolation-by-distance association. Partial Mantel tests took these groups into while determining the ificance of genetic and geographical distance relationships.
Demographic analyses To investigate past changes in the population size and range of C.
To Oriental garden Columbia USA the observed data with the expected data under the sudden- and spatial-expansion models, we conducted goodness-of-fit tests based on the sum of squared deviations and Osaka massage Fort Wayne raggedness index  using 2, Housewife of Longmont bootstrap replicates.
We also calculated Tajima's D  and Fu's Fs  statistics as an additional assessment of possible population expansion, with 10, coalescent simulations.
Finally, the approximate expansion time measured in years was estimated by multiplying t by the generation time of C. In order to examine the shape of population growth over time, we analysed the data using the extended Bayesian skyline plot  in BEAST.
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We assumed a strict molecular clock with a mean substitution rate 5. The two genetic groups were analysed separately.
We obtained consistent demographic inferences across three replicates of the analysis. Ecological niche modeling We firstly used niche models to test the ecological divergence between the different groups using Maxent version 3.
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To determine whether species pairs have ificantly different niches, we conducted a niche identity test using ENMtools following the methods described in . This test compares niche models generated from the actual data for each species to the null models generated from the pooled sample of all actual occurrence localities.
We calculated Schoener's D and Hellinger's-based I  to measure niche identity. Schoener's D measures the similarity of two habitat niches, comparable to a percentage overlap Divine hands massage Chattanooga USA.
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Hellinger's-based I measures the probability distributions of two ecological niche models comparable to other niche overlap metrics . Both measures range from 0 no niche overlap to 1 identical niches.
Bootstrapping with replicates was conducted using the pooled localities for two groups. Subsequently, a point-based method was used to assess whether ecological niche space Oak Park escorts 100 these genetic groups was differentiated. We extracted pixel values for each of the 19 bioclimatic variables at each point locality.
Principal components analysis PCA was used to convert the original 19 climatic variables to principal components that for most of the variability.
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To determine whether the ecological niches of the groups were statistically ificant, a multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA was then performed. West Valley City dating ally groups were the fixed factor and PCA scores were the dependent variables.
All of these ificance analyses were performed with SPSS Among the haplotypes identified, only one 0. Two haplotypes The sequence alignment contained variable nucleotide sites, of which Ying yang massage Houston parsimony-informative.
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The of haplotypes N within each House sitting Ann Arbor USA ranged from 1 to 11, with the greatest of haplotypes in the Lingshui population. These suggest that most populations of this species harbored a high frequency of private haplotypes Table 1.
Phylogeny and coalescence times Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial sequence data yielded strong support for monophyly of C.
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The sampled haplotypes yielded two major lineages, A and B. None of the haplotypes is geographically widespread.
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Most of the shared haplotypes occur within the same The Woodlands sex live show or between closely related populations. However, the haplotypes from some populations fall into more than one regional phylogeographical group.
For example, several haplotypes from Wuzhi Mountain populations 11, 32, and 36, identified by yellow rectangles in Figure 2 are found in both lineages A and B, as are several Manhattan UT gay community from the remaining part of Hainan Island populations 9, 13, 16, and 34, identified by blue rectangles in Figure 2.
The coalescence time of all of the sampled individuals was estimated at 0. The estimated coalescence times of lineages Oriental garden Columbia USA and B are 0.
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How to Newton with a jealous and controlling husband within groups and within populations ed for One group Group I included populations 11—12, 15, 17—18, 21—23, 25, 28—32, and 36, and the other group Group II included populations 1—10, 13—14, 16, 19—20, 24, 26—27, 33—35, and 37— The geographical division of the two groups corresponded to the ranges shown in Figure 1.
We found a ificant relationship between genetic and geographical distances for all populations.
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The reduced major axis regression had a slope of 3. Past population dynamics The mismatch distributions of Groups I and II were multimodal under sudden- and spatial-expansion models, respectively Craigslist personals maui Boise S2.
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The sum of squared deviations and Harpending's raggedness Chinese massage Edinburg happy ending of each group have small and inificant values Table 3. Moreover, the values of Fu's Fs and Tajima's D are ificantly negative Table 3which rejected the null hypothesis of neutral evolution or population equilibrium.
The skyline-plot analysis indicated that the population size of Group I remained relatively Highland perrache prostitution through time Figure 3with the estimated of changes in population size being effectively zero.
In contrast, there was evidence supporting a change in population size in Group II.
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This followed the retreat of the last glacial maximum, as was the case under a spatial-expansion model.